R D UPADHYAY Vs. STATE OF A P
LAWS(SC)-2006-4-23
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
Decided on April 13,2006

R.D.UPADHYAY Appellant
VERSUS
STATE OF ANDHRA PRADESH Respondents


Referred Judgements :-

SHEELA BARSE VS. SECRETARY CHILDRENS AID SOCIETY [REFERRED TO]
VISHAKA VS. STATE OF RAJASTHAN [REFERRED TO]



Cited Judgements :-

ASHA SEVA BHAVI SANSTHA VS. STATE OF MAHARASHTRA [LAWS(BOM)-2010-4-160] [REFERRED TO]
M/S ACTIVE PROMOTERS PVT. LTD. VS. ASSOTECH REALTY PRIVATE LIMITED AND ANOTHER [LAWS(P&H)-2017-1-102] [REFERRED TO]
JASVIR SINGH AND ORS. VS. STATE OF PUNJAB AND ORS. [LAWS(P&H)-2014-5-636] [REFERRED TO]
T. MUHAMMED FAISI VS. STATE OF KERALA [LAWS(KER)-2020-7-367] [REFERRED TO]
AVINASH MEHROTRA VS. UNION OF INDIA [LAWS(SC)-2009-4-79] [REFERRED TO]
SANOFI PASTEUR HOLDINGS SA VS. DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE [LAWS(APH)-2013-2-99] [REFERRED TO]
SCOTCH WHISKY ASSOCIATION VS. J.K. ENTERPRISES [LAWS(MPH)-2023-12-104] [REFERRED TO]
PARUL PRASAD VS. STATE OF BIHAR [LAWS(PAT)-2020-9-66] [REFERRED TO]
VINAYAK DALMIA VS. UNIVERSITY OF DELHI AND ORS. [LAWS(DLH)-2011-5-486] [REFERRED TO]
NATIONAL LEGAL SERVICES AUTHORITY VS. UNION OF INDIA [LAWS(SC)-2014-4-37] [REFERRED TO]
DR. SUBHASH KASHINATH MAHAJAN VS. STATE OF MAHARASHTRA [LAWS(SC)-2018-3-39] [REFERRED TO]
CHAGALAMARRI SUBBAIAH VS. STATE [LAWS(APH)-2009-5-5] [REFERRED TO]
JAN ADALAT & ANR. VS. THE STATE OF MAHARASTRA & ANR. [LAWS(BOM)-2017-3-26] [REFERRED TO]
JANHIT ABHIYAN VS. UNION OF INDIA [LAWS(SC)-2022-11-25] [REFERRED TO]
PHURBA LHAMU TAMANG VS. STATE OF SIKKIM [LAWS(SIK)-2021-2-5] [REFERRED TO]


JUDGEMENT

Y.K. Sabharwal, C.J.I - (1.)-Concerned by the plight of the under-trial prisoners languishing in various jails in the country, various directions were issued by this Court from time to time. Presently, we are considering mainly the issue of directions for the development of children who are in jail with their mothers, who are in jail either as under-trial prisoners or convicts. Children, for none of their fault, but per force, have to stay in jail with their mothers. In some cases, it may be because of the tender age of the child, while in other cases, it may be because there is no one at home to look after them or to take care of them in absence of the mother. The jail environment are certainly not congenial for development of the children.
(2.)For the care, welfare and development of the children, special and specific provisions have been made both in Part III and IV of the Constitution of India, besides other provisions in these parts which are also significant. The best interest of the child has been regarded as a primary consideration in our Constitution. Article 15 prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article 15(3) provides that this shall not prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children. Article 21A inserted by 86th Constitutional Amendment provides for free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years. Article 24 prohibits employment of children below the age of fourteen years in any factory or mine or engagement in other hazardous employment. The other provisions of Part III that may be noted are Articles 14, 21 and 23. Article 14 provides that the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Article 21 provides that no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in human beings and forced labour. We may also note some provisions of Part IV of the Constitution. Article 39(e) directs the State to ensure that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. Article 39(f) directs the State to ensure that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. Article 42 provides that the State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Article 45 stipulates that the State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. Article 46 provides that the State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. Article 47 provides that the State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.
(3.)Apart from the aforesaid constitutional provisions, there are wide range of existing laws on the issues concerning children, such as, the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, the Factories Act, 1948, Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act, 1956, Probation of Offenders Act, 1958, Orphanages and Other Charitable Homes (Supervision and Control) Act, 1960, the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000, the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 1992, Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994, Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995, Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1986.


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